Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP)

Comparative Neurology Program & Animal Molecular Genetics Laboratory
University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine

Researchers at the University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine, working with collaborators around the world, have found the mutation associated with Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP) in Rottweilers. Using the latest whole genome sequencing approach to identify disease causing genes, the researchers were able to find a mutation that was only present in dogs with JLPP and not in any normal dogs or dogs with unrelated diseases.

A DNA test are available to determine if a dog is a carrier of the mutation or at risk for developing JLPP. If you suspect your dog has JLPP, see your veterinarian. As discussed below, there are other conditions that can cause these symptoms. Your veterinarian will be able examine dog to see if one of these more common, potentially treatable diseases is causing your pet’s difficulties and help you interpret results of a DNA test.

Order DNA Test Kit

What is Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy?

If you look down the throat of a dog with laryngeal paralysis; the vocal folds do not pull out of the way like they should as the dog inhales. The airway cannot then open up completely when the dog is breathing hard, and they have trouble getting enough air.

The brain controls muscles via signals that travel through nerves. A disease that affects the nerves is a polyneuropathy: poly- (many), neuro- (nerves), -pathy (a disease). Due to a quirk in the way an embryo develops, one of the longest nerves in the body supplies the muscles of the voice box (larynx). The vocal folds vibrate as air moves over them allowing a dog to bark. When the dog breathes in, muscles in the larynx pull the vocal folds aside so that air can move easily into their lungs.

If nerves are unable to convey that message properly, the muscles become weak or paralyzed. The longest nerves get often affects first; hence laryngeal paralysis is the first symptom. The vocal folds cannot pull out of the way as the dog breaths in. They vibrate noisily and can obstruct the flow of air into the lungs particularly when exercised or hot. The dog may also choke on their food or water or regurgitate, which can result in pneumonia.

The next longest nerves in the body go to the back legs, thus they affect next. The dogs have difficulty getting up and wobble as they walk. Eventually the front legs will also get affect. The symptoms do not occur until after weaning age, and thus the disease is juvenile laryngeal paralysis/polyneuropathy or JLPP for short.


in the affected pups where the eyes get careful examination, they all also had abnormalities in eye development. The eyes were smaller than normal (microphthalmia) and had cataracts as well as other changes.

What else can look like JLPP?

There are other, much more common diseases that can affect a pup’s ability to breath. The windpipe (trachea) is stiff to keep it open when the dog is breathing hard. In some dogs, particularly toy breeds, the trachea does not have the proper stiffness and it can collapse as the dog breathes producing a honking cough. This condition is called collapsing trachea. An infection of the trachea such as kennel cough can cause irritation to the trachea and a similar sounding cough. Infections can cause swelling of the tonsils & lymph nodes around the throat in a young pup and “strangles”. Finally, infections, such as distemper, or other diseases of the nervous system can affect nerves producing signs of weakness, sometimes with pneumonia. Laryngeal paralysis also occurs in older dogs, but JLPP is different because the dogs develop paralysis at such a young age.

How is JLPP inherited?

JLPP is inherited as a recessive trait. In a recessive disease, both parents of an affected pup show no signs of disease. All animals have two copies of each gene, one that is from the mother and other one is from the father. A dog that has one normal gene and one gene that causes the disease is a carrier of the trait. They show no symptoms because the one good gene is enough for their nerves to develop normally; but they will pass that bad gene on to about half of their offspring. If a carrier dog is bred to another carrier; then some of the pups (25% on average) will get a bad gene from each parent. Without one good gene to carry the day, the nerves cannot function normally and the unlucky pup has JLPP.

What do we do with a DNA test?

Now that we have a DNA test that can identify carriers of JLPPl we simply eliminate all the carriers from the breeding pool and eliminate the disease, right?

When dealing with a genetic disease we need to consider the overall genetic health of the entire population of the breed. Unless wise breeding strategies are used, you simply end up trading the devil you know for the devil you don’t. A good example comes from the experience of another breed with a similar size gene pool. A hereditary neurodegenerative disease had become prevalent in the breed, and a DNA test develops. Breeding dogs were tested and dogs that were carriers of the trait were removed from breeding. The next generation, everyone was patting themselves on the back for eliminating that disease from the breed.

Over the next couple generations, however, a dramatic increase in the incidence hereditary blindness and bladder stones get notice. The problem is that ALL DOGS are carriers of potential disease-causing mutations. The recessive mutations aren’t recognized until they become widespread enough in the breed that the odds of two carriers breeding become high. Abandoning one entire line for another only ensures that whatever mutations are lurking in the new line will be the next problem to be dealt with. In addition, all the desirable traits that made that first line popular, to begin with were thrown out with the bathwater.

DNA test

With a DNA test, carriers of a trait can still use in a wise breeding program. As long as both parents are tested and one is clear of the mutation, no affected pups will be born. The offspring of a carrier breeding to a clear dog will produce about 50% carriers; but DNA testing can identify those carriers. If a clear dog from the litter has all the good traits a breeder desires; then that is the dog to keep for the next generation. If a carrier is the pick of the litter in every other respect; then that dog can still be used, it must just be mated to a clear dog.

Thus the DNA status of the dog just becomes one factor in an overall breeding program that looks at the entire dog. Over time the disease-causing mutation can reduce without losing desirable genetic diversity in the breed that provides the raw materials from which to select the best traits as we move forward.

For More Information on Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis and Polyneuropathy visit the website of the University of Missouri

Rottweiler Dog Food

So we have been doing a lot of research and testing quality Rottweiler Dog Food for our Rottweilers over the last few years. Before we would recommend two different brands of food for Adult Rottweilers and Rottweiler puppies. As with any successful breeding program you have to do what is best for your breeding stock so you are able to produce healthy rottweiler puppies for your clients. This was the main reason we were recommending these two different Rottweiler Dog Food brands. We normally buy in bulk for our adult rottweilers and a few bags of the puppy brand each time we had a litter.

While we breed for health and temperament we know some of our lines are slow to mature. On record our smallest “runt female” is now 85 pounds and is not even full grown yet. One of our smallest males is about 90 pounds but that litter was bred for a smaller size so they could be manageable service dogs. We got to looking around and seeing what everyone else was producing as far as size goes, which made us ask ourselves some questions. Don’t get me wrong size is not everything by a long shot, we just had to know are we doing everything we can for the health of the puppy and our clients.

Our adult rottweilers have been fed VICTOR SELECT Multi-Pro Maintenance exclusively for the last two years, and Nutri-Source Large Breed for our puppies, for the most part we have been happy with this combo. No recalls, every one of our dogs / offspring is happy and healthy eating this Rottweiler Dog Food combo. We just had to know is this the best we could afford for our rottweilers so we went to the drawing board of Rottweiler Dog Food once again and became overwhelmed once again. This time was different though, different because we had a good foundation that we did not HAVE to change our Rottweiler Dog Food.

This time we were looking IF we did change our Rottweiler Dog Food what would we like to see. Not just in a food but in the growth and heath of all our rottweilers (owned and produced). We also wanted to see if we could move everyone over to one brand. No more buying different brands for different life-stages. Sure the Rottweiler Dog Food formula might be different but a brand that was so close in the Rottweiler Dog Food formula our puppies would not get upset going from puppy to adult food.

We discovered this was possible when we brought in Azra vom Bistrica Berg this last December. We noticed when she first got here she ate the VICTOR SELECT Multi-Pro Maintenance without issues. No one told us what she was eating before and honestly we never thought to ask, that was until we notice she took to the Rottweiler Dog Food just fine in every way. So we asked her former owner and while is was the VICTOR SELECT brand is was a different formula.

So for the past month or so we have been going over all the different dry kibble Rottweiler Dog Food and what is best for the Rottweiler as a breed, both puppy and adult. We have found several places that recommend Crude Protein for AT LEAST 30% and everyone of these write ups recommended dry kibble food of 33% to 38%. We also noticed that the Crude fat did not really change too much 16% – 18%, which is pretty standard for all quality dry food. Now the final factor that came into play, how much to feed?

How much to feed really depends on your Rottweilers age and life-style.

Puppies – If you are NOT free feeding (which I do NOT recommend for my clients) it is best to feed them 4 times a day. I used to recommend 2 times a day with your training treats as the 3rd, not any more. Unless you are going to a training class (do not feed your puppy within 4 hours of a training class) feed them 3 times a day and the fourth meal will be your treats. If you are not actively training

If you are not actively training every day then go ahead and feed 4 times. I now recommend 1 part water to 3 parts food. Just enough water to make it easier to go down, but still crunchy. Set the food down for 20 minutes and let them eat as much as they want in 20 minutes, start off with 1/2 cup. If they do not eat all of the (now wet) food throw it out, keep it fresh at every feeding.

Adults – Now here is a tricky part. If you have a 130 pound lap dog like my Rambo he needs about 2200 calories a day. If you are training ACTIVELY with lots of running (schutzhund, agility, protection) then your Rottweiler could need up to 3500 calories a day. Quality Dog Food will have a calorie per cup or a “ME” on the packaging OR on their website. It will most likely look like this: Calorie Content (calculated):ME 3909 kcal/kg; 475 kcal/cup. You are worried about the kcal/cup. Formula: Calories per day / kcal(cup) = Number of cups per DAY Now take the Cups per day / Number of feedings.

Need some help or unsure of what how much dog food your Rottweiler needs?

Head over to Dog Food Advisor and use their tools. Still, need more help, feel free to contact us.

In short layman terms King Rottweilers will be switching all of our Adult Rottweilers, Rottweiler Puppies and any Rottweiler Offspring to a Victor Select blend. Since we buy in bulk if our clients would like to buy a bag when they pick up their puppy we should have some on hand to offer. This Change will take affect over the next few weeks and our next litter (Rambo X Unica) puppies will be raised on Victor until they go home.

Great now I have to re-write the Great Food debate in the puppy packet.

Rambo Unica Rottweiler Puppies

We Have Rottweiler Puppies!

Unica whelped 6 healthy rottweiler puppies on December 27th – 28th, 2015.

We are blessed to have 5 boys and 1 girl!
There are no runts of the litter all puppies weighed within .5oz, and so far no faults have seen, it is a perfect and healthy litter.

Due to overwhelming response we have only one male rottweiler puppy left available from this litter.

Now we start the 8 week process, here is a timeline that I try to stick to.

FACEBOOK PAGE – Public Access Page (Facebook membership not required)

Birth Date: December 27th, 2015Go Home: February 19th to 22nd, 2016

Posted by King Rottweilers on Friday, October 23, 2015

Guidelines that I ask of you.
1. Never ask for individual pictures of the “males” or “females”. We will provide pictures outside our timeline as we have time.
2. If you have questions make a list and call me (10 am to 8pm PST) at (509) 477-9300
3. If you would rather email, put all your questions in one email. One line emails over and over are very time consuming.
4. No One can visit the puppies until they are 6 Weeks + 3 Days old and had their shots. (2/10/2016)

Our Time Line

Week 1
12/27 – 28/2015 – Birth
12/29/2015 – Vet check, tails docked, dew claws removed
12/29/2015 – Puppy Pictures posted to Facebook (Group)
1/1/2016 – Puppy Pictures posted to Facebook (Group)
1/4/2016 – Additional $200.00 deposit is Due, failure to send this could result in you losing your place on this litter and or deposit.

Week 2-3 (about)
1/8/2016 – Puppy Pictures posted to Facebook (Group)
1/15/2016 – Puppy Pictures posted to Facebook (Group)

Week 4-5 (about)
Start the weaning process
1/22/2016 – Puppy Pictures posted to Facebook (Group)
1/29/2016 – Puppy Pictures posted to Facebook (Group)
Week 6
2/7/2016 – Puppy Pictures posted to Facebook (individual)
2/10/2016 – Puppy Visits may be allowed Please schedule 3 to 4 days in advance.

Week 7
2/14/2016 – *POSSIBLE AS TIME PERMITS – Puppy Pictures posted to Facebook (Group)
2/15/2016 – Final Payment including shipping is due for clients that require shipping (2 weeks’ notice is required)

Week 8
Feb 19th to Feb 22th.

Pick Up (Friday – Sunday Only)
Friday 12:00 to 5:00 pm
Saturday 10:00 am to 5:00 pm
Sunday 10:00 am to 5:00 pm

Monday (2/22/2016) 5:00 to 11:00 am

*Any puppy not picked up or shipped by February 22nd, 2016 will be subject to a $10.00 per day / $60.00 per week boarding fee.
**Any puppy not picked up or shipped by March 1st, 2016 will be subject to sell if prior arrangements have not made.

Rottweiler Puppy Cost

Why is the Rottweiler Puppy cost so expensive?

Being a breeder I get this age old question all the time. While there are some truth to what some breeders will tell you there are just as much deception when it comes to some replies. While it is easy to make a spreadsheet on the cost to produce a litter of Rottweiler pups, breeders are few and far between posting accurate pricing on these spreadsheets. Most of which is because of the backyard breeders picking it apart with statements of “No way I can do that cheaper” or “You don’t have to do that test”.

Just to give you three examples of the cost difference

  1. Health Certifications – Most less expensive breeders do not perform these test, ethical breeder pay thousands on top of the purchase price and import fees.
  2. Cost of breeding stock – Most less expensive breeders bought from a cheap puppy. While ethical breeders are paying thousands to import health certified rottweilers.
  3. Cost to produce the litter – Ethical breeders add everything pertaining to that litter as a cost, less expensive breeders look at the amount the puppies sold for their profit.

As a breeder I am always shopping for new import rottweilers to bring into my kennel. The price range on a adult Rottweiler varies just as much as a puppy. Of course you can find really good deals but knowing price is a huge factor of the quality of the rottweiler you tend to stay clear of the less expensive adult breeding rottweilers and the rottweiler stud dogs.

I think back to when I was starting my rottweiler breeding program all over again and trying to bring in new pedigrees that would take my breeding program to the next level. After all as an ethical rottweiler breeder I should strive to produce rottweiler puppies at are better than the last generation.

As much as dog lovers melt over a cute, cuddly puppy, when it comes time to actually buy a dog, price sensitivity enters into it. I’ll admit now that price was a very important parameter back then. I will also admit now, that while we made an amazingly great choice, I was also really stupid.


The best way to sum this up in two sentences: The purchase price of a Rottweiler is a drop in the bucket when you compare to the cost of total rottweiler ownership. Cheap things are not good and good things are rarely cheap.

A great way to look at the price is to compare family companion pet quality rottweilers purchase price. With $850.00 being the average price of a Rottweiler puppy from a puppy mill and $1500.00 being the average price for an professional ethical breeder. The average life span of a rottweiler is 10 years. Now take all of these figures and put it into common sense equations (Price)/(year x days) = cost per day. The daily cost of the $850.00 rottweiler equals $0.23, while the $1500.00 rottweiler equals $0.41. A whole $0.18 difference, what can you get for that $0.18? Maybe a 1/2 of cup of dry kibble if you buy the cheap stuff.

Now what are you really getting for the extra money by purchasing the more expensive rottweiler puppy? After all Rottweiler puppies are the cutest puppies on earth. When ever you take them out everyone will flock to the your rottweiler puppy no matter which one you decide to buy. Oh Gosh they are so cute.

Ethical breeder

An ethical breeder will set standards for their entire program and will not sway to make a few extra bucks. Ethical breeders know the pedigrees, the temperaments and the health of most of the rottweilers in the pedigree. They do this by taking the time to research for proper pairing. Not just one pairing, they have to think about all possible combinations within their breeding program and potential rottweiler stud dogs from other breeders. On top of that they do the proper testing of their own rottweilers to decrease the chances of faults in the rottweiler puppies they produce. The most common ones being Hips, Elbows and the DNA coat length test. If a rottweiler does not get these clearances with passing marks for breeding standards, it is the duty of the ethical breeder to cut their losses not breed with these rottweilers.

What are you really saving by purchasing a rottweiler puppy from the puppy mill. Since they normally do not do the test since they do not know better or they do not want to spend the money you are more likely to have health issues with that puppy. So you saved $0.18 a day, but what if this $850.00 puppy ends up with a health issue like hip dysplasia? You could easily eat that $650.00 in savings with a $2000.00 to $3000.00 vet bill. On top of that the puppy could have a shorten life, what if he only lived to be 5 years old? Well that puppy you saved so much on is now more expensive at $0.46 a day. Now add in your vet bills ($2000.00 to be frugal) and that puppy cost you $1.56 a day, almost four times the $1500.00 rottweiler puppy from the ethical breeder.


Ethical breeders stand behind their rottweiler puppies so if you have major health issues you are not out all of your money. Backyard breeders normally make excuses and do not have contracts. If they do have a rottweiler puppy contract look for the words “AS IS”. This will be your worst nightmare as this will void any and all claims previously stated in the contract

This is not some theory I came up with to sell rottweiler puppies, I live it every day. I hear the heart wrenching stories from potential clients all the time. Some of these potential clients bought from a breeder that is just an hour away from King Rottweilers and claimed to do the health checks. I guess they forgot anyone can look up health their rottweilers in the OFFA.org database.

Now, buying a rottweiler puppy from an ethical breeder doesn’t guarantee your rottweiler will be healthy and well-adjusted, but having four or five generations of health certificates has to increase your chances of having a healthy, happy rottweiler. And for less than a quarter a day, pretty inexpensive insurance if you ask me.


Side note on testing

While there are other tests out there such as Heart and Eyes, you have to be aware that these two tests are for that point in time. This health clearances require re-certification on a yearly basis. A yearly basis that 99% of all breeders fail to re-certify. Some feel they did it once that should be enough, others just do not know the certification is only good for one year. Also if you ask your veterinarian they should be able to preform these test for you on a routine health check visit, which is what we do.

Spayed and Neutered

I seem to get this question a lot so I figured I would write something up to explain my position on spay and neutering your Rottweiler Puppy. A long good read with FACTS from 4 case studies. King Rottweilers recommends you do not spay your rottweiler until at least 12 months of age and neuter your stud before 18 months. Of course the longer the better up to two years old.

One in four Rottweilers – Bone Cancer

(All case study as independent and authors are listed for each.)

The pet population has always the main goal in spayed or neutering your pet at an early age. After all the shelters are full of dogs and cats that do not have a home. Most shelters require you to fix your new pet before taking them home just for this reason. This is very understandable since these are the people that recuse so many cats and dogs due to over or accidental breeding. It is here where so many of the myths come from. As a breeder I hear so many of them. Some Veterinarians are spreading these myths without even knowing they are doing it because this has been the rule of thumb for ALL dogs. However what is great for one breed is harmful to another.

This is where the breeder comes in. After all, breeders know their breed and have done the research on their breed to be able to inform their clients the proper time lines for such cases. In most cases a breeder will tell you to go with what your Veterinarian recommends. Is this bad? If you don’t know better than it cannot be bad. However you as a client are relying on your breeder to have the knowledge of the breed to help, not hinder you.


In most cases breeders are trying to protect their lines they have worked so hard to produce. After all if you take your Imported rottweiler and pair it with another Imported Rottweiler of the wrong lines it will make the original breeder look bad, along with your expensive Rottweiler. Not all Rottweilers should paired with another. Producing a litter for the wrong pairing could cause disqualifying faults, hereditary defects, or poor bloodlines. Ethical breeders want all of their offspring (if you have breeding rights) to produce the best possible rottweiler puppies. Finally, remember future puppies produced will reflect what the kennels produced in the past.

Any breeder that requires you to spay or neuter your Rottweiler should know the pro’s the con’s and the myths.

King Rottweilers has never required to spay or neuter your puppy at a early age. We have had it in our contract to wait at least 12 months for a Rottweiler Bitch and 18 months for a Rottweiler Stud. While we always encourage all our clients to wait to as close to 24 months if possible before sterilizing your Rottweiler.

Pro’s, Con’s and Myths


  • No puppies
  • Pet Overpopulation
  • Eliminates pyrometra in females
  • Prevents Tumors (only 1% get it)
  • Veterinarians get money to spay/neuter
  • Prevents most uterine infections in females
  • Rottweiler Studs won’t get excited to mate
  • Prevents uterus and ovary cancer in females
  • No heat cycle every 6 to 7 months in females
  • Prevents tumors for UN-descended testicles (14% get it)


  • Change your dogs personality
  • Increase risk of ligament rupture (ACL)
  • Increase risk of osteosarcoma – bone cancer
  • Excessive bone growth – height, actual study below
  • Triples the risk of hypothyroidism (removing hormones)
  • Early spaying causes urinary incontinence (up to 20% increase)
  • Increase risk of hip dysplasia (wrong age when neutered/spayed)
  • Early spaying changes the shape and size if the “private parts”
  • Increases the deadly risk of hemangiosarcoma (Rottweiler is a high risk)
  • Doubles the risk of obesity resulting in heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, and joint disease.

Sexual hormones are extremely important to a Rottweilers development. So, by removing the hormones you are putting your dog at a increased risk for some serious health problems later in life. This is also believe to be ONE of the reasons behind the “American Rottweiler” look. They need those hormones to develop their plates (Jaw, Hips and Elbows), bone (head, legs and ribs) and drop their chest.

  • My Rottweiler Stud will stop humping
  • The Rottweiler will feel less of a man
  • My Rottweiler will not be aggressive
  • Spay and neutering causes weight gain
  • My Rottweiler Stud will stop wanting to breed
  • The Rottweiler will stop using the bathroom in the house
  • My Rottweiler will get lazy and fat (only if you overfeed your dog)

A Rottweiler does not stop growing until at LEAST 2 years of age, this includes height, weight, bone growth, and hormone maturity. Hormones make the body grow naturally. When breeders certify the dogs hips and elbows, it is checked at 2 years of age. The reason a OFA is checked and certified at the age of 24 months is because the growth plates in the joints have closed completely and growth is complete. If the hormones are removed then the dog does not grow properly. I now believe a breeder should not require you to spay/neuter your dog before 1 year old, but I suggest it to done at 24 months old if the new puppy owner want to spay or netuer the dog.


Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1434-40.
Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk.
Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, Glickman NW, Glickman LT, Waters DJ.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.


Although, experimental and clinical evidence suggest that endogenous sex hormones influence bone sarcoma genesis, the hypothesis has not adequately tested in an appropriate animal model. We conducted a historical cohort study of Rottweiler dogs because they frequently undergo elective gonadectomy and spontaneously develop appendicular bone sarcomas, which mimic the biological behavior of the osteosarcomas that affect children and adolescents. Data were collected by questionnaire from owners of 683 Rottweiler dogs living in North America.

To determine whether there was an association between endogenous sex hormones and risk of bone sarcoma, relative risk (RR) of incidence rates and hazard ratios for bone sarcoma were calculated for dogs subdivided on the basis of lifetime gonadal hormone exposure. Bone sarcoma was diagnosed in 12.6% of dogs in this cohort during 71,004 dog-months follow-up. So the Risk for bone sarcoma was significantly influenced by age at gonadectomy.

The male and female dogs that underwent gonadectomy before 1 year of age had an approximate one in four lifetime risk for bone sarcoma and were significantly more likely to develop bone sarcoma than dogs that were sexually intact [RR +/-95% CI = 3.8 (1.5-9.2) for males; RR +/-95% CI = 3.1 (1.1-8.3) for females]. Chi(2) test for trend showed a highly significant inverse dose-response relationship between duration of lifetime gonadal exposure and incidence rate of bone sarcoma (P = 0.008 for males, P = 0.006 for females). This association was independent of adult height or body weight. We conclude that the subset of Rottweiler dogs that undergo early gonadectomy represent a unique, highly accessible target population to further study the gene:environment interactions that determine bone sarcoma risk and to test whether interventions can inhibit the spontaneous development of bone sarcoma.


J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000;13 Suppl 6:1439-55.
Estrogen, bone, growth and sex: a sea change in conventional wisdom.
Grumbach MM.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0434, USA. grumbac@itsa.ucsf.edu


The discovery of a man with a homozygous mutation in the estrogen receptor alpha gene, which results in estrogen-receptor alpha resistance, and of males and females with autosomal recessive mutations in the CYP19 gene encoding aromatase, which leads to a failure to synthesize estrogens, has challenged conventional wisdom about the ‘unimportant’ role of estrogen in the male.

For example, in the male, estrogen (not androgen) derived from direct testicular secretion (approximately 20%) and from extragonadal aromatization of testosterone and androstenedione (approximately 80%), is the critical sex hormone in the pubertal growth spurt, skeletal maturation, accrual of peak bone mass, and the maintenance of bone mass in the adult. Estrogen stimulates chondrogenesis in the epiphyseal growth plate increasing pubertal linear growth. At puberty, estrogen promotes skeletal maturation and the gradual, progressive closure of the epiphyseal growth plate, possibly as a consequence of both estrogen-induced vascular and osteoblastic invasion and the termination of chondrogenesis.

In addition, during puberty and into the third decade, estrogen has an anabolic effect on the osteoblast and an apoptotic effect on the osteoclast, increasing bone mineral acquisition in axial and appendicular bone. In the adult, estrogen is important in maintaining the constancy of bone mass through its effects on remodeling and bone turnover. Establishing a role for estrogen does not exclude a direct action of testosterone on bone in the human male (especially on cortical bone), but this action is less characterized than thought in the past and is relatively minor in comparison with the major effect of estrogen in the male.


Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Dec;(429):301-5.
Canine ovariohysterectomy and orchiectomy increases the prevalence of ACL injury.
Slauterbeck JR, Pankratz K, Xu KT, Bozeman SC, Hardy DM.

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 3601 4th St., 4A136, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA. jimmy.slauterbeck@ttuhsc.edu


To determine whether canine ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy affects the prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injury, we compared injury rates of anterior cruciate ligaments of animals that had gonadectomy and animals that were sexually intact as a function of gender, breed, or size. Records of 3218 dogs treated in one orthopaedic veterinary practice during a 2-year period, retrospectively reviewed. Anterior cruciate ligament injury, diagnosed by a history of acute hind limb lameness and by positive anterior drawer test, was confirmed at the time of surgery. The prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament rupture in all dogs was 3.48%.

However, females that had ovariohysterectomy and males that had orchiectomy had a significantly higher prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament rupture than the sexually intact dogs. Larger dogs had an increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injury compared with smaller or medium-sized dogs, with the increased rupture rates for sterilized animals holding across breeds and sizes. Thus. sterilization of either gender increased the prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injury, suggesting a potential effect of gonadal gender on prevalence of injury of this ligament.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
February 1, 2004, Vol. 224, No. 3, Pages 380-387
doi: 10.2460/javma.2004.224.380

Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs

C. Victor Spain, DVM, PhD Janet M. Scarlett, DVM, PhD Katherine A. Houpt, VMD, PhD, DACVB
Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. (Spain, Scarlett); Present address: Philadelphia Department of Public Health, Division of Disease Control, 500 S Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19146. (Spain); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. (Houpt)

Objective — To evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy, compared with traditional- age gonadectomy, among dogs adopted from a large animal shelter.

Design — Retrospective cohort study.

Animals — 1,842 dogs.

Procedure — Dogs underwent gonadectomy and adopted from an animal shelter before 1 year of age; follow-up was available for as long as 11 years after surgery. Adopters completed a questionnaire about their dogs’ behavior and medical history. When possible, the dogs’ veterinary records were reviewed. Associations between the occurrence of 56 medical and behavioral conditions and dogs’ age at gonadectomy were evaluated.

Results — Among female dogs, early-age gonadectomy associated with increased rate of cystitis and decreasing age at gonadectomy associated with increased rate of urinary incontinence. Among male and female dogs with early-age gonadectomy, hip dysplasia, noise phobias, and sexual behaviors get an increment, whereas obesity, separation anxiety, escaping behaviors, inappropriate elimination when frightened, and relinquishment for any reason were decreased.

One time only!

King Rottweilers is very happy to announce we have acquired Andrea V. Titanh of for our next breeding with Rambo Vom Zica Maradona.


All about Andrea

Andrea is a very loyal Rottweiler with a perfect temperament for a single family, a true lady’s Rottie . She has imported into the United States just a few months ago. Thus, it is a great honor that King Rottweilers and our Rambo were offered this opportunity to study her first litter bred on U.S. soil!

She is the daughter of Tito Earl Antonius and the granddaughter of the 2010 IFR World Sieger Astor von Junipera. Thus, With this pairing, these offspring will also have the first back to back IFR World Sieger Imperator Hom Haus Zschammer (2013 & 2014) as their grandsire.

Welcome Azra

King Rottweilers is pleased to announce the latest addition to our family Azra vom Bistrica Berg

Azra vom Bistrica Berg

All About Azra Vom

King Rottweilers has acquired Azra Bistrica Berg via way of Gentry Creek Rottweilers in Tennessee. She is a very impressive, large female with extreme head type and an outstanding temperament. Because of her excellent drive, confidence, massive substance and muscle, dark rich markings and gorgeous head, she should fit into our family very nicely. Her mother is Lucy from Royal Breed, another excellent dame that we know very well. We had the privilege to meet Lucy a few years ago when she imported into the United States and fell in love with her temperament.

Thus, she has produced one imported litter. She noted to be a fantastic mother that produces pups that are out of this world!

Welcome to King Rottweilers Azra vom Bistrica Berg.

Azra’s Page

Official Retirement of Ditty

King Rottweilers is proud to announce the official retirement of Afrodita “Ditty” Miracle Rott.

Afrodita Miracle Rott
Afrodita Miracle Rott
King Rottweilers

King Rottweiler has officially semi-retired Ditty from our breeding program. Ditty will live with a member of the family until placement can make with a current client that we are already in discussion with or with a disabled veteran that is in need of a potential service dog.

With semi-retirement Ditty may bred in the future but this would be highly unlikely at King Rottweiler. We want to Ditty to go to a forever home and start her journey in life. So with a extremely heavy heart we wish Ditty all the best in her retirement and new forever home.

Ditty’s Page